Get discount 10% for the first order. McNatt, Brian. Although highly intelligent people may be effective leaders, their followers may feel that large differences in intellectual abilities mean large differences in attitudes, values, and interests. Later, Richard Mann  (1959) came to the same conclusions that although individuals with certain characteristics were more likely to be successful leaders, leaders were not altogether  different  from  followers. What about professional research paper help on Effective Leadership topics!? House, R. J. Weber proposed that charisma can occur when a leader with certain qualities emerges during a crisis to propose a new vision (Weber 1946). Leadership development programs tend to be of two types: internal programs within an organization, designed to strengthen the organization, and external programs that take the form of seminars, workshops, conferences, and retreats. The theory suggests that the best approach may be selected by answering several basic questions about the situation that relate to the quality and acceptance of a decision. The human side of enterprise. A Meta-analysis of the Relation Between Personality Traits and Leadership Perceptions: An Application of Validity Generalization  Procedures. Search Previous slide < About this journal. To answer this question, the researchers developed a matrix that outlines the five decision processes that range from highly autocratic through consultative to highly participative (see Table 68.4). 3 Leadership Research Paper Literature Review Robert Greenleaf was the first writer to describe the phrase servant leader. When we consider the lives of Gandhi or Martin Luther King, Jr., it is easy to think of their influence as a function of unique personal attributes. Read more Fiedler’s  contingency  model  proposes that  leader effectiveness is a function of the match between the leader and specific situational factors, including position power, task structure, and leader-member relations. There was little evidence to  support  a relationship between leader behavior and leader effectiveness. In. In helping followers achieve their aspirations, Bernard Bass (1997) has noted that charismatic leadership is a component of a broader-based concept, that of transformational leadership. Yukl, G. A. Other changes will come about as a result of new and emerging technologies. The leader’s method of including followers is contingent upon such constraints as time, talents, and resources. He concluded that the individual who serves are not solely leaders but also followers. Political candidates proclaim it, pundits discuss it, companies value it, and military organizations depend on it. For example, Bernard Bass and Ralph Stogdill’s definition of leadership does not fully account for hierarchical structures, and T.  Owens Jacobs and Elliot Jaques’s definition does not address the interactive nature of leadership between a superior and a subordinate. The  theory hypothesizes that  certain subordinates will respond better to directions when a task is unstructured (e.g., developing building plans) than when a task is structured  (e.g., air traffic controlling) (House  and  Dessler 1974). If that is so, what should leaders consider in making adjustments? The failure of this approach to recognize the importance of the situation in providing clear distinctions between leaders and followers with regard to their traits caused many scientists to turn their attention elsewhere. The Ohio State studies referred to this as consideration, the Managerial Grid calls this country club leadership, and McGregor uses the term Theory Y. Person-oriented leaders see their followers as responsible, self-controlled, and intrinsically motivated. Finally, achievement-oriented leadership was most effective when subordinates were engaged in ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasks. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 1371–1394. A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. The first step in grid training is a grid seminar during which members of an organization’s management team help others in their organization identify their management style as one of four management styles: impoverished management, task management, country-club management, and team management. Now we are encouraging for more women leadership by breaking the “glass ceiling’ by the year of 2020. Whereas leaders, be they navy admirals or football coaches, receive credit or blame for the activities of their followers, success or failure is often the result of external forces: the actions of others, changing technologies, or environmental conditions. Men are considerably more likely to enact leadership behaviors than are women in studies of leaderless groups, and as a result are more likely to emerge as leaders (Eagly, 1987). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. In the Ohio State studies this was referred to as initiating structure, whereas McGregor (1960) refers to it as Theory X, and the Managerial Grid calls it task-centered. Leaders promote thoughtful, rational, and careful decision making. Eight leadership traits (e.g., ruthlessness and irritability) were identified as being universally undesirable. Fiedler, F. E. (1964). Also study: Leadership Research Paper Example At that time leaders must be remain calm and energetic as well as it has to make sure by the leaders that they are not going to be manage just a little task they are managing a whole team of different people that are working on the same goal. When . Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, 46–78. As a result, they are more likely to consult with others before making decisions, praise the accomplishment of their followers, and be less directive in their supervision. Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. (1989). These findings appear consistent with the core focus of these theories. 1993. Perrow, C. (1970). It is the process by which others are motivated to contribute to the success of the groups of which they are members. However, Stogdill failed to find traits that were universally associated with leadership and could be reliably used to predict who might be an emerging leader. You can use our professional writing services to buy a custom research paper on any topic and get your high quality paper at affordable price. New York: Academic Press. 2004. Who becomes the leader? The study of followership includes an understanding of two separate dimensions of follower initiative: performance and relationships. The second step is an expert’s assessment of the leader’s strengths and weaknesses. He examined 124 studies to determine the characteristic differences between leaders and followers. Captured in the situational leadership approach are the quality of relationships, tasks, and activities to be performed, perceptions of the leader based on history, the motivation of both the leader and the follower, and personal characteristics influencing the situation. After World War II (1939–1945), researchers emphasized the observable aspects of leadership in order to differentiate not only the nature of leadership and leader activity but also the behavioral patterns of effective leaders (Chemers 1997). As you can see in Table 68.1, the most effective leaders are those who are both task and person oriented, whereas the least effective leaders are those who are neither task nor person oriented. Bass, B. M. (1990). Starting from this perspective, this research paper first briefly examines major challenges facing contemporary organizations, then reviews a number of alternative ways of looking at leadership in organizations, and finally considers some specific leadership requirements presented by change and globalization, the two largest organizational challenges of this century. 1990b. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 127–136. (1977). Yukl (1998) pointed out that when subordinates perform poorly, leaders tend to be more task oriented, but when subordinates perform well, leaders are more person oriented. Question 4. Conger, Jay , and Rabindra N. Kanungo. “Leadership is influencing people—by providing purpose, direction and motivation—while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization” (Department of the Army 1999, pp. As many definitions of leadership exist as do authors who have studied the concept. Another trait often attributed to effective leaders is intelligence. In particular, Gibb noted the importance of establishing leadership/followership through early, shared, significant experiences; he also stressed that an important aspect of the organizational climate for the new leader derives from the policies of the former leader, the consequence of which shape followers’ expectations, morale, and interpersonal relations. Further, Fiedler argued that leaders cannot adjust their behavior to changing circumstances. Internal leadership development programs tend to focus on three major areas: the development of social interaction networks both between people within a given organization and between organizations that work with one another, the development of trusting relationships between leaders and followers, and the development of common values and a shared vision among leaders and followers. 3 Leadership Research Paper Literature Review Robert Greenleaf was the first writer to describe the phrase servant leader. With this in mind, he suggested that leaders need to understand what their style is and to manipulate the situation so that the two match. Governments, businesses, industries, and private organizations have all turned to behavioral scientists to  better  understand  how organizations work efficiently, how managers can improve workers’ performance, how teamwork and commitment can be instilled, and how an environment conducive to change can be structured. 2005. The actions and personalities of leaders usually are reduced to messages about current events. For example, Pfeffer (1997) indicated that “If one cannot observe differences when leaders change, then what does it matter who occupies the positions or how they behave?” (p. 108). Like previous researchers, Fiedler’s idea of leadership style included task orientation and person orientation, although his approach for determining a leader’s orientation was unique. 12. House proposed three areas that would affect the path-goals relationship: the task, the characteristics of the followers, and the nature of the group to which the followers belong. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER INSTRUCTIONS Part 1 – Literature Review • In this portion of the paper, you will conduct a literature review of the major studies of servant leadership. Murphy, S. E., & Ensher, E. A. A clear implication of the theory is that leaders must diagnose the situation before adopting a particular leadership style. Use early success in achievable tasks to build confidence. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Fiedler developed the least-preferred coworker (LPC) scale. At the heart of the problem of defining leadership lie two fundamental difficulties. A meta-analysis by Indvik (1986) is generally supportive of the theory. The  relationship and  influence theories have furthered scientific understanding of the leadership phenomena. knowledge of leadership that I currently withhold. The third component is intellectual stimulation. Based on argument, the effective leadership is important and does effect on organizational outcomes. Bennis, W. (1989). In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds. Another important  aspect of the model is to what extent the support of followers is critical to successful outcomes. American Psychologist, 62, 2–5. Studies of seven organizations found that task-oriented approaches are effective in situations with low task structure, because they help subordinates cope with an ambiguous situation, and ineffective in situations with high task structure, because they appear to be micromanagement. Transactional leaders are controlling and paternalistic, making the leader be solely responsible for worker job satisfaction and high staff turnover (Benjamin, 2017). Charismatic and transformational leadership theories  have  turned  out  to  be  the  most  frequently researched theories  since the  early 1990s  (Judge  and Piccolo 2004), with the accumulated research showing that charismatic and transformational leadership is positively associated with leadership effectiveness and a number of important organizational outcomes across many different types of organizations, situations, levels of analyses, and cultures (see Avolio, Bass, Walumbwa, and Zhu [2004] for a summary of this literature). Conceptions and definitions  of  leader and  leadership  have been  reviewed by Carroll Shartle (1956), Bernard Bass (1960), and James Hunt  and colleagues (1982), among others. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 307–321. On becoming a leader. In their model, they depicted task behavior and relationship behavior as orthogonal dimensions. LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER. Thus, Gibb (1969) has pointed out that many groups prefer to be “ill-governed by people [they] can understand” (p. 218). Leadership is a trait which is not associated to the personal attributes of the individuals (Kur & Bunning, 2002). The paper looks at leadership styles as the most discussed sub-section of leadership in its literature. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Bass believed that most leaders are transactional rather than transformational in that they approach their relationships with followers as a transaction, one in which they define expectations and offer rewards that will be forthcoming when those expectations are met. Another influential model within  the  contingency approach is the normative decision model from Vroom and Yetton. This theory describes how leaders maintain their influence by treating individual followers differently. First, researchers do not consider traits as separate and distinct contributors to leadership effectiveness but rather as a constellation of characteristics that, taken together, make a good leader. The resea… Although  contingency theories dominated leadership research for decades, a number of writers have questioned the methods used to tests  these  theories  (Yukl  2002). This approach examines the extent to which leaders should involve their subordinates in decision-making processes. 277–307). American Psychologist, 62, 17–24. The self-protective style involves following agreed-upon procedures, being cognizant of the status hierarchy, and saving face. Although most of us would agree that leadership is extraordinarily important, research in this field has yet to arrive at a generally accepted definition of what leadership is, create a widely accepted paradigm for studying leadership, or find the best strategies for developing and practicing leadership. With  the  limitations of behavioral approaches for explaining why some leaders are more effective than others, leadership researchers shifted their focus away from what leaders are toward developing a better understanding of what leaders actually do, and how such behaviors relate to leader effectiveness (i.e., how often a leader communicates with followers, what types of reward and discipline methods he or she uses, and the decisions leaders make). LEADERSHIP RESEARCH PAPER: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP 2 Leadership Research Paper: Political Leadership There are no argues bigger then argues about leadership. 26 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 38 sources. Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. If these factors were all high or all low, it was determined that a task-centered leader would be most effective. It gives them hope. Behavioral Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings. 100 Years of Leadership Intervention Studies: A MetaAnalysis. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. The autonomous style involves being independent and making one’s own decisions. 1986. American Psychologist, 62, 6–16. He points out that solving the first three problems will not be possible without exemplary leadership and that an understanding of how to develop such leadership will have serious consequences for the quality of our health and our lives. Problems with the Pygmalion Effect and Some Proposed Solutions. (Eds.). As Hubert H. Humphrey once said, “Leadership in today’s world requires far more than a large stock of gunboats and a hard fist at the conference table.” The final motive, need for affiliation, can be a detriment to effective leadership if the leader becomes too concerned with being liked. (2007). Task-oriented leaders focus on the group’s work and its goals. The leader-member relationship generally follows three stages. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. The Sociology of Charismatic Authority. They listen attentively and consider the individual needs, abilities, and goals of their followers in their decisions. One question that researchers have tried to answer is “who is exerting the influence?” During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, “great man” theories dominated leadership discussions. On Leadership: An Alternative to the Conventional Wisdom. The second part of his contingency theory is the favorableness of the situation. New leaders should first learn to listen, and then provide leadership. Vroom and Jago (2007) suggest that the importance of the situation is based on three factors: the limited power of many leaders, the fact that applicants for leadership positions go through a uniform screening process that reduces the extent to which they differ from one another, and whatever differences between them still exist will be overwhelmed by situational demands. These  models  emphasize persuasive influence instead of compelled compliance. (1986). An Attribution Theory of Leadership. The leader solicits ideas and suggestions from subordinates and invites them to participate in decisions that directly affect them. Their reward is greater access to the leader’s resources, including information, concern, and confidence. The role of the situation in leadership. Finally, transactional leaders tend to adopt a laissez-faire approach by avoiding the need to make hard decisions. Question 5. Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A SelfConcept Based Theory. Eagly, A., & Johnson, B. Bass, Bernard , and Ralph M. Stogdill. Leadership and management often go together and as such dissertation topics in leadership and management correspond to both aspects. For example, how do leaders build  more  enlightened  and  transformational forms that create referent effects beyond mere legitimacy? Academy of Management Review, 2, 104–112. 1986. This is how your paper can get an A! Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. In the US, Warren Bennis (1989) stated, “To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a new generation of leaders— leaders, not managers.” He points out that managers focus on “doing things right” whereas leaders focus on “doing the right things.” Table 68.2 provides a comparison of the characteristics that distinguish a leader from a manager. Some of these suggestions are particularly important for newly appointed leaders in establishing an effective leadership style early in their tenure as leader. Still other theories examine the relationship between the leader and his or her followers as the key to understanding leadership. From this data, John Hemphill (1950) quantified 150 behavior descriptors that were incorporated into the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), which is still used as a measure in leadership research. In. 4, pp. Yet, considerable debate exists among researchers regarding an understanding  of  who  exerts influence, what  kind  of power or influence is exerted, when and where leadership takes place, and why and how this phenomenon occurs. Mann, Richard 1959. (1977). 1974. When under pressure, task-oriented leaders become anxious, defensive, and domineering. Although the characteristics are not necessarily the same- indeed, both correspond to different personality traits, yet they are complementary to each other. Zaccaro (2007) suggests that the revival of the trait approach reflects a shift away from the idea that traits are inherited, as suggested in Galton’s 1869 book Hereditary Genius, and focuses on personal characteristics that reflect a range of acquired individual differences. The great man theory led to hundreds of research studies that looked at personality traits, physical characteristics, intelligences, and values to differentiate leaders from followers. The Great Person Theory suggests that some people are marked for greatness and dominate the times in which they live. A leadership style is the leader’s method o… . A meta-analysis by Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lima, and Lentz (2004) indicated that individuals who were mentored showed greater organizational commitment, lower turnover, higher career satisfaction, enhanced leadership skills, and a better understanding of their organization. Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key values. The idea of the tide leads us to the role of situational factors in leadership. Another form of internal leadership development is mentoring. Page 1 of 50 - About 500 essays. “Leadership is a process of giving purpose [meaningful direction] to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose” (Jacobs and Jaques 1990, p. 281). The second component broadens the concept of trait to refer not only to personality characteristics but also to motives, values, social and problem-solving skills, cognitive abilities, and expertise. Katherine Miller and Peter Monge (1986) meta-analyzed research on the effects of participation in decision making on satisfaction and productivity. Nevertheless, in most of the situations in which leaders find themselves, they are not that powerless and their effectiveness is mostly a result of matching their skills with the demands of the situation, which brings us to a discussion of contingency theories. “Can You See the Real Me?” A Self-based Model of Authentic Leader and Follower Development. Over nearly three decades, researchers have found that if leaders have confidence in followers and set high goals and expectations for them, then the followers’ likelihood of success is higher due to a self-fulfilling prophecy effect (see Eden et al. 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